1 pleasant or pleasing or agreeable in nature or appearance; "what a nice fellow you are and we all thought you so nasty"- George Meredith; "nice manners"; "a nice dress"; "a nice face"; "a nice day"; "had a nice time at the party"; "the corn and tomatoes are nice today" [ant: nasty]
2 socially or conventionally correct; refined or virtuous; "from a decent family"; "a nice girl" [syn: decent]
3 done with delicacy and skill; "a nice bit of craft"; "a job requiring nice measurements with a micrometer"; "a nice shot" [syn: skillful]
4 excessively fastidious and easily disgusted; "too nice about his food to take to camp cooking"; "so squeamish he would only touch the toilet handle with his elbow" [syn: dainty, overnice, prissy, squeamish]
5 noting distinctions with nicety; "a discriminating interior designer"; "a nice sense of color"; "a nice point in the argument" [syn: discriminate]
6 exhibiting courtesy and politeness; "a nice gesture" [syn: courteous, gracious] n : a city in southeastern France on the Mediterranean; the leading resort on the French Riviera
city in France
Nice (; Niçard Occitan: Nissa or Niça [classical norm], Italian: Nizza, Greek: Νίκαïα, Latin: "Nicaea") is a city in southern France located on the Mediterranean coast, between Marseille, France, and Genoa, Italy, with 1,197,751 inhabitants in the metropolitan area at the 2007 estimate. The city is a major tourist centre and a leading resort on the French Riviera (Côte d'Azur). It is the historical capital city of the County of Nice.
HistoryFor the ecclesiastical history, see bishopric of Nice The first known human settlements in the Nice area date back approximately 400,000 years; the Terra Amata archeological site shows one of the earliest uses of fire and construction of houses. Nice (Nicaea) was probably founded around 350 BC by the Greeks of Massilia (Marseille), and was given the name of Νικαία ("Nikaia") in honour of a victory over the neighbouring Ligurians (Nike is the Greek goddess of victory). The city soon became one of the busiest trading ports on the Ligurian coast; but it had an important rival in the Roman town of Cemenelum, which continued to exist as a separate city until the time of the Lombard invasions. The ruins of Cemenelum are located in Cimiez, which is now a district in Nice.
In the 7th century, Nice joined the Genoese League formed by the towns of Liguria. In 729 the city repulsed the Saracens; but in 859 and again in 880 the Saracens pillaged and burned it, and for most of the 10th century remained masters of the surrounding country.
During the Middle Ages, Nice participated in the wars and history of Italy. As an ally of Pisa it was the enemy of Genoa, and both the King of France and the Emperor endeavoured to subjugate it; but in spite of this it maintained its municipal liberties. During the course of the 13th and 14th centuries the city fell more than once into the hands of the Counts of Provence; and at length in 1388 the commune placed itself under the protection of the Counts of Savoy. Nice (called Nizza in Italian) participated - directly or indirectly - in the history of Savoy up until 1860.
The maritime strength of Nice now rapidly increased until it was able to cope with the Barbary pirates; the fortifications were largely extended and the roads to the city improved. In 1561 Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy, abolished the use of Latin and established the Italian language as the official language of Nice.
During the struggle between Francis I and Charles V great damage was caused by the passage of the armies invading Provence; pestilence and famine raged in the city for several years. It was in Nice that the two monarchs in 1538 concluded, through the mediation of Pope Paul III, a truce of ten years.
In 1543, Nice was attacked by the united forces of Francis I and Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha; and, though the inhabitants repulsed the assault which succeeded the terrible bombardment, they were ultimately compelled to surrender, and Barbarossa was allowed to pillage the city and to carry off 2,500 captives. Pestilence appeared again in 1550 and 1580.
In 1600, Nice was briefly taken by the duke of Guise. By the opening the ports of the countship to all nations, and proclaiming full freedom of trade (1626), the commerce of the city was given great stimulus, the noble families taking part in its mercantile enterprises. Captured by Catinat in 1691, Nice was restored to Savoy in 1696; but it was again besieged by the French in 1705, and in the following year its citadel and ramparts were demolished.
The treaty of Utrecht in 1713 once more gave the city back to Savoy; and in the peaceful years which followed the "new town" was built. From 1744 till the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748) the French and Spaniards were again in possession. In 1775 the king of Sardinia destroyed all that remained of the ancient liberties of the commune. Conquered in 1792 by the armies of the First French Republic, the County of Nice continued to be part of France until 1814; but after that date it reverted to the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont.
By a treaty concluded in 1860 between the Sardinian king and Napoleon III, the County was again ceded to France as a territorial reward for French assistance in the Second Italian War of Independence against Austria, which saw Lombardy unified with Piedmont-Sardinia. The cession was ratified by over 25,000 electors out of a total of 30,700. Savoy was also transferred to the French crown by similar means.
Giuseppe Garibaldi, born in Nice, strongly opposed the cession to France (arguing that was not done with "universal" vote) and in 1866 there were even popular riots in the city, promoted by "Garibaldini" in favour of the unification of Nice to Italy. The Italian Irredentists considered Nice one of their main nationalistic requests and in 1942/3 the city was occupied and administered by Italy during World War II.
The dawn of the 20th century was the arrival of a modern mode of transport. In 1900, the Tramway de Nice electrified its horse drawn tramway and spread its network to Menton and Cagnes-sur-Mer, equipping the city of a modern mode of transport.
In the second half of the 20th century, Nice bore the influence of mayor Jean Médecin (mayor for 33 years from 1928 to 1943 and 1947 to 1965) and his son Jacques (mayor for 24 years from 1966 to 1990). On October 16 1979 23 people died when the coast of Nice was hit by a tsunami. As accusations of political corruption against Jacques Médecin grew, he fled France in 1990 and was arrested in Uruguay in 1993, leading to his extradition in 1994. He was then convicted of several counts of corruption and associated crimes and sentenced to prison.
In 2003, local head prosecutor Éric de Montgolfier alleged that some judicial cases involving local personalities had been suspiciously derailed by the local judiciary, which he suspected of having unhealthy contacts, through Masonic lodges, with the very people that they are supposed to prosecute or judge. A controversial official report stated that de Montgolfier had made unwarranted accusations.
Christian Estrosi is the mayor of Nice since 2008. He is a member of the UMP party.
Located in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur région, Nice is a commune and the préfecture (administrative capital) of the Alpes-Maritimes département. However, it is also the largest city in France that is not a regional capital; the much larger Marseille is its regional capital.
ClimateBefore referring to climate tables, one should be aware that the official Nice temperatures are recorded at the airport, which is a climatically different place than the rest of the town, being more vulnerable to marine air and winds from the Var valley. Airport temperatures are therefore different from town ones : daytime airport temperatures are slightly higher, while nighttime temperatures are significantly lower. For example, on the 24th of January 2007, a minimum of 0.9°C was recorded at the airport while the temperature didn't go below 6°C in the city itself. The following statistics and descriptions use official temperatures.
Nice has a Mediterranean climate : the city enjoys mild temperatures most of the year; rainfall is very moderate and mainly concentrated in the darkest part of the year (September to March).
Winters, starting in December, are cool to mild with daytime temperature generally remaining between 10°C and 17°C and colder overnight lows. However, the temperature rarely reaches freezing point, which occur only once or twice a year. During winter, overcast skies are common and sporadic rain falls.
As winter ends in March, weather becomes more unstable and unpredictable : warm, sunny days (26°C the 2nd of March 2007) can be followed by sudden hailstorms and cold fronts (7°C the 1st of April 2007).
However, generally, the weather becomes increasingly sunny as summer approaches. Summers start quite late because of a notable season lag. Drought starts in July, and really hot temperatures become common in August, which is the warmest month with daytime highs frequently reaching 35°C. Summer heat is however often moderated by a cool and pleasant sea breeze. Autumn, starting in late September, is generally warm until mid-November, and rainy (especially October with an average rainfall of 140mm).
Nice is a windy city, especially in spring.
Snow is so rare that it is remembered by inhabitants as special events.
EconomyNice is the seat of Chambre de commerce et d'industrie Nice Côte d'Azur. It manages both the Nice Côte d'Azur Airport, the Cannes-Mandelieu Airport as well as the Port of Nice.
Nice has the second market of national interest of France, the first port cement-manufacturer of France as well as a great number of museums and hotels.
Nice is the second most popular French city among tourists after Paris, which, combined with the difficulties of the terrestrial communications at long distance (because of the Alpes), allows Nice to have the second busiest airport of France in terms of passenger numbers (close to 10,000,000 passengers in 2005).
Nice has two conference centres, Palais des Congrès Acropolis and Palais des Congrès de Nice. Nice has several business parks; l' Arenas, Nice the Plain, Nice Méridia, Saint Isidore, Northern Forum. There are also several shopping centres in Nice like Nice Star, Nice TNL, Nice Lingostière, Northern Forum, St-Isidore, the Trinity (around the Auchan hypermarket) and Cape 3000 with Saint-Laurent-du-Var.
Sophia Antipolis is a technology park northwest of Antibes. Much of the park is within the commune of Valbonne. Established between 1970 and 1984, it primarily houses companies in the fields of computing, electronics, pharmacology and biotechnology. Several institutions of higher learning are also located here, along with the European headquarters of W3C.
Sophia Antipolis is named after Sophie Glikman-Toumarkine, the wife of French Senator Pierre Laffitte, founder of the park, and incidentally, Sophia, the goddess of wisdom, and Antipolis, the ancient Greek name of Antibes.
Port of NiceThe port of Nice is also known as Lympia port. This name comes from the Lympia source which fed a small lake in a marshy zone where in 1745 work of the port ¹ was started. It constitutes today the principal harbour installation of Nice - there is also a small port in the Carras district. The port of Nice is the first port cement manufacturer of France in connection with the treatment plants of the rollers of the valley of Paillon.
Fishing activities remain but the number of professional fishermen is now lower than 10. Nice, being the point of continental France nearest to Corsica, has ferry connections with the island developed with the arrival of NGV or navires at high speed. Two companies ensure the connections: SNCM, a partially public company and Corsica Ferries - Sardinia Ferries, an entirely private company. Located in front of the port, the place Cassini was renamed place of Corsica.
Nice Côte d'Azur AirportThe Côte d'Azur International Airport or Nice Côte d'Azur Airport () is an airport in Nice, in the Alpes-Maritimes department of France. It is the third most important airport in France after Charles de Gaulle International Airport and Orly Airport, both in Paris. It is on the Promenade des Anglais, near l'Arénas and has two terminals. Due to its proximity to the Principality of Monaco, it also serves as that city-state's airport, with helicopter service linking the city and airport.
It is run by the Chamber of Commerce and the Nice Côte d'Azur industry. Its director is Hervé de Place, director of the Côte d'Azur airports, which includes Côte d'Azur International Airport's cousin airport, Cannes-Mandelieu. In 2006, 9,948,035 passengers travelled through the airport.
Places of interest
- Monument aux morts
- The port
- Cours Saleya
- Musee Massena
- Marché aux fleurs
- Old Nice
- Grand Hôtel Impérial
- Fort du MontAlban http://www.fileden.com/files/2007/3/27/931695/Fort%20du%20Mont%20Alban%20582k.jpg
DemographyAccording to the estimates of INSEE, the population of Nice was 347,900 inhabitants on January 1 2005. Nice is thus the fifth largest city in France, behind Paris, Marseilles, Lyon and Toulouse. The Agglomeration of Nice, defined by INSEE, is home to 888,784 inhabitants (fifth of France) and its urban surface totals 933,080 inhabitants, which makes it the sixth largest in France.
The city saw a big demographic rise in second half of the 19th century, a period when the population more than doubled, mainly due to Italian immigration. At the beginning of the 20th century, this rise intensified with the arrival of internal immigrants from the County of Nice itself.
After the First World War, the city had a strong increase in population. Immigration was again the reason of this growth. The hotel industry and that of the construction industry, in full strength in the 1920s, attracted world more and more and thus made it possible for Nice to become a town of national importance. In 1921, Nice then became the eleventh town of France, then in 1931, the eighth, before being classified with the sixth rank in 1946. The population increased very quickly in the 1950s, with the arrival of sixty thousand people. Thereafter, the city reached its current demographic level thanks to the repatriates of old French colonies, in particular those from Algeria.
Since the 1970s, the number of inhabitants has not changed significantly; the relatively high migration to Nice is compensated by a negative natural increase of the population. Nice has a high proportion of elderly people.
Currently, the population of the city is growing again, the reason of which is undoubtedly heliotropism. Nice is projected to have 350000 citizens in 2005, 360000 in 2008, 370000 in 2012.
SquaresLike any Mediterranean city, the town of Nice has squares; allowing people to gather, to organize great shows, performances or public display, or just to sit down at a terrace.
Place MassénaThe Place Masséna is the main square of the city. Before the covering of the Paillon River, the Pont-Neuf was the only practicable path between the old town and the modern one. The square was thus divided into two parts (North and South) in 1824. Since the destruction of the Masséna Casino in 1979, the Place Masséna became more spacious and less dense and is now bordered by red ochre buildings of Italian architecture.
The recent re-building of the tram gave the square back to the pedestrians, restoring its status of a real Mediterranean square. It is lined with palm trees and stone pines, instead of being the rectangular roundabout of sorts it had become over the years. Since its construction, the Place Masséna has always been the spot for great public events. It is used for concerts, and particularly during the summer festivals, the Corso carnavalesque (carnival parade) in February, the military procession of July 14th (Bastille Day) or other traditional celebrations and banquets.
The Place Masséna is a two-minute walk from Promenade des Anglais, old town, town centre, and Albert I Garden (Jardin Albert Ier). It is also a large crossroads between several of the main streets of the city: avenue Jean Médecin, avenue Felix Faure, boulevard Jean Jaurès, avenue de Verdun and rue Gioffredo.
Place GaribaldiThe Place Garibaldi also stands out for its architecture and history. It is named after Giuseppe Garibaldi, hero of the Italian unification (born in Nice, which was still a part of Sardinia-Piedmont at the time), who was ferociously attached to the union of Nice to Italy.
A Statue of Garibaldi is erected in the centre of the place. The re-building of the square (still ongoing) will make this square semi-pedestrian, making it more pleasant.
It is a crossroads between the Vieux Nice (old town) and town centre. Place Garibaldi is close to the eastern districts of Nice, Port Lympia (Lympia Harbor), and the TNL commercial centre. This square is also a crossroads of important streets : the boulevard Jean Jaurès, the avenue de la république, the rue Cassini and the rue Catherine Ségurane.
Place RossettiEntirely enclosed and pedestrianised, this square is located in the heart of the old town. With typical buildings in red and yellow ochres surrounding the square, the cathédrale Sainte-Réparateand the fountain in the centre, place Rossetti is a must-see spot in the old town. By day, the place is invaded by the terraces of traditional restaurants and the finest ice-cream makers. By night, the environment changes radically, with tourists and youths flocking to the square, where music reverberates on the walls of the small square. The square's lighting at night gives it a magical aspect.
Place Rossetti is in the centre of the old town, streets Jesus, Rossetti, Mascoïnat and the Pont-vieux (old bridge)
In the past, it belonged to the upper classes. It probably is the most traditional square of the town, with its daily flower market. The court Saleya also opens on the Palais des rois Sard (Palace of the Kings of Sardinia). In the present, the court is mostly a place of entertainment. There are good restaurants serving typical Nicois cuisine, markets and many pubs. It is no doubt one of the most active spots in Nice.
It is situated parallel to the Quai des Etats-Unis.
Place du PalaisAs its name indicates, the place du palais is where the Palais de Justice (Law courts) of Nice is located. On this square, there also is the Palais Rusca, which also belongs to the justice department (home of the tribunal de grande instance).
The square is also notable due to the presence of the city clock. Nowadays, the Place du Palais is alive day and night. It is particularly appreciated by youths who hangout on the steps leading to the Palais de justice, often with alcoholic bottles in hand. The place is not a large open-air bar, though, concerts, animations and events are frequent.
It is situated halfway between cour Saleya and place Masséna.
Nice ObservatoryThe Observatoire de Nice (Nice Observatory) is located on the summit of Mont Gros. The observatory was initiated in 1879 by the banker Raphaël Bischoffsheim. The architect was Charles Garnier, and Gustave Eiffel designed the main dome.
The 76-cm (30-inch) refractor telescope that became operational in 1888 was at that time the world's largest telescope. It was outperformed one year later by the 36-inch (91-cm) refractor at the Lick Observatory.
As a scientific institution, the Nice Observatory no longer exists. It was merged with CERGA in 1988 to form the Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur.
Nice is one of the oldest human settlements in the world. Terra-Amata, an archaeological site dating to the Lower Palaeolithic age is situated near Nice. Nice was established by the ancient Greeks. There was also an independent Roman city near Nice, where the hill of Cimiez is located. It is an archaeological site with treasures, of which only a small part has been excavated. The excavated site includes thermal baths, arenas and Roman road.
Since the second century AD, the light of the city has attracted many famous painters such as Chagall, Matisse, Niki de Saint Phalle, Ben and Arman and inspired many artists and intellectuals in different countries (Berlioz, Nietzsche, Rossini…).
Nice also has numerous museums of all kinds: Musée Chagall, Musée Matisse (arenas of Cimiez where one can also see Roman ruins), Musée des Beaux-Arts Jules Chéret, Museum of Naïve arts, Musée Terra-Amata, Museum of Asian Art, Museum of Modern art and Contemporary art which devotes a broad place to famous “the Ecole of Nice ”), Museum of Natural History, Musée Massena, Naval Museum and Galerie des Ponchettes.
Being a vacation resort, Nice hosts many festivals throughout the year. For example, Carnaval de Nice and Nice Jazz Festival are among the festivals held in Nice.
Nice has a distinct culture due to its unique history. The local language Niçard (Nissart) is an Occitan dialect (but some Italian scholars argue that it is a Ligurian dialect), still spoken by a huge minority. Strong Italian and (less) Corsican influences make it more intelligible than other non-extinct Provençal dialects.
Nice has a few local dishes. There is a local tart made with onions and anchovies (or anchovy paste), named "Pissaladière" (French spelling). Socca is a type of pancake made from chickpea flour. Nice is also known for bouillabaisse and various fish soups; "Stockfish" (traditionally pronounced as "Stoquefiche" (French spelling) with special emphasis on the first "e"). Farcis niçois is a dish made from vegetables stuffed with breadcrumbs; and salade niçoise is a tomato salad with green peppers of the "Corne" breed, baked eggs, tuna or anchovies and olives.
In the past, Nice welcomed many immigrants from Italy (who continue to make a large proportion of the population), as well as Spanish and Portuguese immigrants. However, in the past few decades immigration has been opened to include immigrants from all over the world, particularly those from former Northern and Western African colonies, as well as southeastern Asia. Traditions are still alive, especially in folk music and dances. The most famous is farandole.
GastronomyThe cuisine of Nice uses resources of the local countryside (olive oil, anchovies, fruit and vegetables) but also resources from more remote regions, in particular those from Northern Europe because ships which came to seek olive oil arrived full with food products. Thus one finds specialities such as those using stockfish made from dried haddock.
Local meat comes from neighbouring valleys, such as the sheep of Sisteron. Local fish, such as mullets, bream, sea urchins, and anchovies (alevins) are used to a great extent, so much so that it has given birth to a proverb: "fish are born in the sea and die in oil.” Naturally, this refers to the olive oil made in the Nice hills. Indeed, seafood is generally much appreciated in the delicate and healthy cuisine of Nice.
Examples of Niçois specialties include:
- Beignets de fleurs de courgettes
- Soupe au pistou
- Tourte de blettes
- University of Nice Sophia Antipolis
- Université Pierre et Marie Curie
- CERAM Sophia Antipolis - ESC Nice
- IDRAC Business School
- EDHEC Business School
- IPAG Business School
- WLE French Language Immersion Program (USD)
Sister citiesNice's town twins are:
- Active twinnings:
- flagicon Italy Cuneo, Italy
- flagicon UK Edinburgh, United Kingdom
- flagicon Poland Gdańsk, Poland
- flagicon China Hangzhou, China
- flagicon Canada Laval, Canada
- flagicon USA Louisiana (State), United States
- flagicon USA Miami, United States
- flagicon Germany Nuremberg, Germany
- flagicon Russia Saint Petersburg, Russia
- flagicon Hungary Szeged, Hungary
- flagicon Greece Thessaloniki, Greece
- flagicon Ukraine Yalta, Ukraine
- Other twinnings:
- flagicon Spain Alicante, Spain
- flagicon Colombia Cartagena, Colombia
- flagicon Madagascar Antananarivo, Madagascar
- flagicon South Africa Cape Town, South Africa
- flagicon USA Houston, United States
- flagicon Japan Kamakura, Japan
- flagicon Gabon Libreville, Gabon
- flagicon Philippines Manila, Philippines
- flagicon France Nouméa, France
- flagicon Thailand Phuket, Thailand
- flagicon Brazil Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
- flagicon France Saint Denis, France
- flagicon Spain Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain
- flagicon Italy Sorrento, Italy
- flagicon Armenia Yerevan, Armenia
- County of Nice
- Albert Spaggiari
- Bishopric of Nice
- Nice Carnival
- Catherine Ségurane
- Cimetière du Château
- European Institute of High International Studies
- Nice Observatory
- OGC Nice
- Rugby Nice Côte d'Azur Université-Racing
- Sophia Antipolis
- Treaty of Nice
- Hotel Negresco
- Le Méridien
- Nissa La Bella
Sources and references
External linkssisterlinks Nice
nice in Afrikaans: Nice
nice in Arabic: نيس
nice in Aragonese: Niza
nice in Bavarian: Nizza
nice in Breton: Nisa
nice in Bulgarian: Ница
nice in Catalan: Niça
nice in Cebuano: Nice
nice in Czech: Nice
nice in Welsh: Nice
nice in Danish: Nice
nice in German: Nizza
nice in Estonian: Nice
nice in Modern Greek (1453-): Νίκαια (Γαλλία)
nice in Spanish: Niza
nice in Esperanto: Nico
nice in Basque: Niza
nice in French: Nice
nice in Hindi: नीस
nice in Croatian: Nica
nice in Indonesian: Nice
nice in Icelandic: Nice
nice in Italian: Nizza
nice in Hebrew: ניס
nice in Georgian: ნიცა
nice in Ladino: Nisa
nice in Latin: Nicaea (Francia)
nice in Latvian: Nica
nice in Luxembourgish: Nice
nice in Lithuanian: Nica
nice in Hungarian: Nizza
nice in Dutch: Nice
nice in Japanese: ニース
nice in Norwegian: Nice
nice in Norwegian Nynorsk: Nice
nice in Occitan (post 1500): Niça
nice in Piemontese: Nissa Marìtima
nice in Polish: Nicea
nice in Portuguese: Nice
nice in Romanian: Nisa
nice in Quechua: Nice
nice in Russian: Ницца
nice in Albanian: Nice
nice in Sicilian: Nizza (Francia)
nice in Simple English: Nice
nice in Slovak: Nice
nice in Slovenian: Nica
nice in Serbian: Ница
nice in Finnish: Nizza
nice in Swedish: Nice
nice in Vietnamese: Nice
nice in Turkish: Nice
nice in Ukrainian: Ніцца
nice in Venetian: Nizsa
nice in Volapük: Nice
nice in Chinese: 尼斯
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